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英語學習方法總論

發布日期:2005-06-03  作者:未知  瀏覽量:[]

方法就是方法,它最終無法取代刻苦的學習.

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Oral English:(口語學習方法總匯)
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(1).  We study spoken English so as to make oral communications, so this order of importance of oral English study should be followed: Fluency, Accuracy, and Appropriateness. That is to say, we have to pay more attention to practical communicating ability instead of only laying emphasis on the grammatical correctness.

我們學習口語目的是為了與別人進行交流,所以英語口語中的幾個要素的重要次序應為:流利-準確-恰當.

(2).  Try to find some partners practicing oral English together and English corner is a good place as where we may exchange English study experience, widen our sight and improve interest in English.

尋找學伴一起練習口語.英語角是個不錯的地方,在那我們不但可以練習口語,還可以交流英語學習經驗,開拓視野,提高英語學習興趣.

(3).  If English partners are not easy to get, then we have to create an English environment ourselves by speaking English to ourselves.

如果找不到學伴或參加英語角的機會很少,那么也沒有關系,有很多種方法可以自己練習口語.比如通過自己對自己將英語來創造英語環境.可以對自己描述所看到的景物,英語口述自己正在作的事情.

(4).  This method is very effective and easy to insist on--interpreting Chinese-English novels or books. First we read the Chinese parts and then try to interpret them into English and then compare our interpretation with the original versions in the novels or books so that we can find out the mistakes, shortcomings and progresses in our interpretation.

    *這種方法非常有效且很容易堅持---口譯漢英對照(或英漢對照)的小說或其它讀物.首先我們先讀漢語部分,然后逐句直接口譯成英文,完成一小段后,去看書上的對應英文部分并與我們的口譯進行比較,我們馬上可以發現我們口譯的錯誤,缺點和進步. 請注意:開始要選擇較簡單的讀物,且應大量做,只做一兩篇效果是不明顯的.開始可能較慢,費時較多,但請堅持,整體上這是一個加速的過程. 高級階段請計時練習,以加快反應速度和口語流利度.

    *作為成人學英語,記憶力差是個攔路虎,作復述練習或背誦課文往往力不從心,或者由于詞匯量太小覺得直接作口譯太難,那么這樣做可以非常有效地解決這個問題::先學習英文課文,通篇理解透徹后,再來看漢語譯文, 把漢語譯文口譯回英文. 這樣等于既作復述練習又作口譯(語)練習,可謂一石雙鳥!

    *這樣作的好處:

    1.自己就可以練習口語,想練多久,就練多久.

    2.始終有一位高級教師指出您的不足和錯誤---英文原文.

    3.題材范圍極廣,可以突破我們自己的思維禁錮,比如我們總是喜歡談論我們自己熟悉的話題,所以我們總是在練習相同的語言,進步當然就緩慢了.

    4.選擇小說,幽默故事或好的短文閱讀,使我們有足夠的興趣堅持下去.

    5.有一些我們在直接學習英語課文時被我們熟視無睹的地道的英語用法會被此法發掘出來.

    6.對所學知識和所犯錯誤印象深刻.這等于我們一直在作漢譯英練習,很多英文譯文是我們費盡心思憋出來的,所以印象相當深刻.比直接學習英文課文印象要深的多. 

    7.經過大量的練習,你會有這樣的感覺:沒有什么東西你不能翻譯,你的翻譯水平大大加強了,你的口語表達力大大提高了!

(5). Interpreting what you hear---Changing Roles: Three people make a group: one speaks Chinese, one speaks English acting as the foreigner, one acts as interpreter. Then change roles. This is a good interpreting training method and is good for studying from one another. In addition, it may improve the responding ability and speed of students. The advanced stage of this method is simultaneous interpretation. 

聽譯法-角色互換:三人一組,模擬翻譯實戰.一人將漢語,一人將英語,扮演老外,一人作翻譯.練習一段時間后互換角色.這是一種非常好的翻譯訓練方法,也是很好的相互學習,取長補短的方法.而且可大大提高反應速度和能力.此法的高級階段為同聲傳譯,我們可以在聽廣播或看電視或開會時,把所聽內容口譯英文. 

(6).  Oral composition and 3-minute training method: This method is suitable for intense training. Making an oral composition about a certain topic for one minute the first time and record the composition on tape at the same time. Then listen to the composition and find out the room for improvement. Then make the same composition for two minutes for the second time and also record it. And at last repeat the above-mentioned for three minutes.

口語作文和3分鐘訓練法:此法適用于強化訓練.找好一個題目作一分鐘的口語作文,同時將其錄音.聽錄音,找出不足和錯誤,就此題目再作兩分鐘的的口語作文,同樣錄音,再聽并找出不足與進步,繼續作三分鐘口語作文.這是高級口語訓練,效果不俗.

(7).  Retelling exercise: Retell some articles or English stories in our own words.

復述練習:最簡單也是最有效的口語學習方法.從治本上攻克英文的方法,特別適合初學者和中級學者,用自己的話背頌所聽的英語故事或文章短文,應該大量地練習.

(8).  If possible, we may read some English tongue twisters loudly and quickly with one or two cakes of candy in our mouth (just as the Chinese cross-talk actors do.) to train our oral cavity muscle and tongues suitable for English pronunciation.

如果可能我們也可以大聲且快速朗讀英文繞口令(就象相聲演員練嘴),還可以同時口中含塊糖以加大強化訓練的力度.這樣來強我們的口腔肌肉迅速適應英文發音,使我們的口語相當流利,清晰,而且還有自信.例如:

  ☆ A big black bug bit the back of a big black bear. The big black bear bit back the big black bug.

  ☆ This fish has a thin fin; That fish has a fat fin;

This fish is a fish that has a thinner fin than that fish.

(9). Paying more attention to phrases and small words as one major shortcoming of Chinese English (especially Chinese oral English) is that Chinese students tend to use big words in their oral language, but the idiomatic oral English is abundant with short, active and vivid phrases. And most of such phrases are made of small words.

特別注意短語(詞組)和小詞的運用,中國式的英語尤其是口語一個很大的缺點就是中國學生喜歡用大詞,而真正地道的英語口語確是充滿著短小,活潑,生動的短語,富有生氣.而這些短語大部分有小詞構成. 

(10) Thinking in English.英語思維的培養。

   1. 大量根據圖片來了解生詞的含義,故事的情節.這是少兒英語中常用的方法,也試用于成人.

   2. 習慣于使用英-英字典而不是英-漢字典會起相當重要的作用.

   3. 加強聽力訓練,尤其是聽用英語解釋英語的課程講解.

   4. 如果沒有機會擁有封閉的語言環境的話, 就最好嘗試一下自我封閉語言環境的創造與訓練.如:強迫自己在一周內所有要表達的話,全部用英語表達.只要你能堅持一周,效果就相當明顯,而無論你所表達的英語有多糟!.

(11).  Oral English has its own features, but it is closely combined with other aspects of English, for example, writing may make oral English precise and accurate.

口語雖自有特色,但與英語的其它方面緊密相連.比如,經常練習寫作,可使口語精密,準確.

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整體建議 
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1.  We'd better develop our interest in English at the beginning of our study. To develop interest in English study is not very hard. We may have the feeling of satisfaction and achievement from our English study when we are able to say something simple in English, talk with others or foreigners in English and act as others' interpreters.

在英語學習之初,我們應該注重培養對英語學習的興趣.培養對英語的興趣并不難.當我們可以說點兒簡單的英語,用英語與別人或與老外交談,或作別人的翻譯時,我們就可以從英語學習中得到滿足感和成就感,這樣,興趣就培養起來了.請注意,這種滿足感和成就感很重要!

2.  Plans are always very essential, so we must make some elaborate and workable plans before study. And we should certainly carry out these plans to the letter.

制定英語學習計劃太重要了,所以我們必須在學習前制定精細的和可操作的計劃. 并且我們一定要嚴格執行這些計劃.請注意:千萬不要干沒有計劃的傻事,那等于在浪費生命.

3.  Notes should be made whenever we study any book. We may follow this advice: Don't read book without making notes. As we know that notes are the summarization, the core content, our understanding and the abbreviations of the books. Our notes are much thinner than the books so that we can learn them by heart easier and can often review and read them. We may also record our notes on tapes so as to often listen to them easier, to deepen our impression and to lighten our burden of memory. Sometimes it is needful to draw some tables and illustrations that are

very impressive, visual and concise.

無論學習什么,我們都要作筆記.我們可以參照下面的忠告:不作筆記就不要讀書.如您所知,筆記是我們對所學課本的總結,中心內容,我們的理解和課本的縮略.筆記要比課本薄的多,我們可以較容易的記憶和經常復習他們.更勝一疇的做法是把筆記錄成音,這樣我們可以經常聽一聽來加深印象和減輕記憶負擔.

4.  Watching English movies, English TV programs, listening to English songs and learn English on some special occasions are also excellent and vivid English learning ways as we may combine English with some certain scenes to deepen our memory.

看英文電影,收看英語電視節目,聽英文歌曲和在某些特定場景學習英語也是很棒和很生動的英語學習方式,因為這樣我們可以把所學英語與某些特定的場景聯系起來以加深記憶.

5.  Never just memorize single English words. Learn by heart the whole sentences and the phrases that contain the new words so we may know how to use the words.

請不要孤立地背英語單詞.請背記包含生詞的句子或詞組,這樣我們才真正能運用這些詞匯,而且印象更深.

6.  If time permits, we may read Mini Chinese-English dictionary carefully from cover to cover, which may help us widen our sight and master knowledge in all aspects.

如果時間允許,通讀小小漢英字典對于英語學習也幫助很大.他能幫助我們擴大視野并全方位地掌握所學知識.

7.  Excellent personality is one of the decisive factors in English study. Persistence, patience, self-confidence and determination are badly needed.

優秀的性格也是英語學習的關鍵因素之一,堅持,忍耐,自信和堅定都是很重要的.當然如果興趣培養得好, 可適當削弱這方面的要求.  

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Listening comprehension:(聽力)
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A.  We may improve our aural ability by speaking English in the native and idiomatic way. The pronunciation, intonation and sentence structure should not be in Chinese style.

可以通過講地道的口語來提高聽力.發音,語調和句子結構請不要中國化.既然能說出來,當然能聽懂.當然這樣作有點難.

B.  Keeping a relaxed, natural and steady mood when listening to some materials. Namely, to establish self-confidence and to develop excellent psychological quality are essential in the improvement of aural ability.

在作聽力練習時,力求保持放松,自然和穩定的心態.即建立自信心和培養良好的心理素質在聽力提高中致關重要.

C.  We may make some simple notes while listening, for examples, the names of people and places, time, age, distance, occupation, figures and so on to get a better understanding of the content.

在作聽力練習時,我們可以作些簡單的筆記,例如人名,地名,時間,年齡,職業,數字等以便更好地理解材料.當然還要以聽為主.

D.  Catching the drift of the content instead of understanding every word and never waste too much time on single words.

作聽力練習要重材料大意, 而不要力求聽懂每個詞,不要在單個詞上浪費太多時間.

E.  Pay close attention to CONCESSION and TRANSITION so as to correctly understand the attitudes of the speakers. The following words are most important: even though, even so, in spite of, unless, although, no matter, however, whatever, no, nor, neither…nor, but….

密切注意聽力材料中的讓步與轉折以便正確把握說話人的態度.特別關注這些詞: even though, even so, in spite of, unless, although, no matter, however, whatever, no, nor, neither…nor, but….

F.  If we may learn by heart new words by listening some word tapes, the results must be satisfactory.

在背記生詞時,如果能聽詞匯磁帶,那么對聽力提高也很有好處.

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Reading skills:(閱讀)
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a. Intensive Reading: When we read the intensive articles, we should make notes of the new words and phrases and good sentences. After reading them, we may ask ourselves some questions about them by using such words: Who, What, Why, When and Where. Then try to answer them in our own words.

精讀:在精讀課文時,我們要把生詞,詞組,句型做成筆記.讀后要試著用這些疑問詞提問自己:誰,什么,何時,何地且努力用自己的話來回答.

b. Extensive reading: We must train our ability to scan, skip and read fast. Namely, the ability to catch the key words, the topic sentences and the drift of the articles.

泛讀:要培養瀏覽,跳讀和快讀的能力.即抓住關鍵詞,主題句和中心大意的能力.

c. Reading speed: Three ways to improve our reading speed: 1) Reading the articles from the beginning to the end without intervals so to catch the rough idea of the articles on the whole. Never waste too much time on some new words and single sentences. 2)We may keep time when reading articles.3) When reading articles, we can point at the words with our finger or pen point and our eyes move with the finger quickly so that we are able to read very fast.

閱讀速度:三種方法提高我們的閱讀速度:1.先從頭至尾不間斷地通讀課文以抓住課文大意.不要在單個詞或單句上浪費太多時間.2. 閱讀時計時.3.閱讀時用手指或筆尖指向文章字句并快速移動來迫使我們的眼睛快速隨手指或筆尖移動來強化我們的閱讀速度.

d. Newspaper as good reading materials can widen our sight and richen our knowledge.

多讀報,多受益:開闊視野,豐富知識,學習流行詞語和英語最新發展.

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Writing skills.( 寫作)
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a. We have to accumulate abundant materials before we write something, say, learning by heart crowds of articles.

寫作需要有很多素材,積累素材很重要.要多背課文.

b. Try to express one meaning in various ways.

努力用多種方式表達一種意思.

c. Keeping English diary if possible.

寫英語日記.

a)Prepare some new words, expressions and good sentences to be used before writing something.

在寫作前準備一些要用的好詞匯,好句子.

b)We may also make some English pen pals to establish English communication relationship through some media like newspaper and magazines.

結交英語筆友,寫英文信.這種方法容易堅持,還很有意思.不仿一試,好處多多。

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